Points Database

Location Guides:

: Taichong : Great Rushing

Liv-3 : Foot Jueyin Liver 3

Classifications:
Shu-Stream and Earth point

Yuan-Source point
Ma Dan-yang Heavenly Star point
Homeostatic point 5 (Ma, Ma & Cho, 2005, Biomedical Acupuncture for Pain Management)
Trigger point (Travell & Simons, 1998, Trigger Point Manual)

Location:
On the dorsum of the foot, in the hollow distal to the junction of the first and second metatarsal bones.

Needling:
In the direction of Yongquan Kid-1, 0.5 - 1.5 cun.

TCM Actions:
Spreads liver qi
Subdues liver yang and extinguishes wind
Clears the head and eyes
Regulates menstruation
Regulates the lower jiao

TCM Indications:
  • Headache, dizziness, numbness of the head, opisthotonos, contraction of the sinews of the hands and feet, epilepsy, childhood fright wind, deviation of the mouth, tetany, hypertension.
  • Distension and pain of the lateral costal region, inability to catch the breath all day long, sighing, swelling of the axilla, pain of the Liver and Heart, Heart pain with a wiry pulse, distension of the Heart, breast pain, epigastric or abdominal pain, perimbilical pain, pain and fullness of the hypogastrium, shan disorder in children, swollen testicles, retracted testicles, unilateral sagging of the testicle, pain of the genitals.
  • Insomnia, easily fearful.
  • Blurred vision, cloudy vision, redness, swelling and pain of the eyes.
  • Cracked lips, swelling of the lips,distension of the throat, pain of the throat, dry throat with desire to drink, internal heat with thirst, low grade fever, death-like green complexion.
  • Amenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, incessant uterine bleeding, uterine prolapse, ceaseless and profuse sweating after childbirth, insufficient lactation.
  • Enuresis, difficult urination, retention of urine, painful urinary dysfunction, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, deficiency-taxation oedema.
  • Jaundice, vomiting, vomiting blood, nausea, constipation, difficult defecation, borborygmus, diarrhoea containing undigested food,diarrhoea with thin stools, bloody diarrhoea, dysenteric diarrhoea, blood in the stools.
  • Emaciation, insufficiency of essence (semen) in men, seminal emission, insufficiency of qi.
  • Lumbar pain radiating to the lower abdomen, lumbar pain, pain of the inner and outer knee, pain of the lower leg, flaccidity and weakness of the legs, inability to walk, cold sensation in the knees and feet, cold feet, pain of the inner malleolus, swelling of the elbow, contraction of the five fingers.

    Neuroanatomy:
    Superficial Innervation: Deep fibular (peroneal) from common fibular nerve (L4 - S2)
    Dermatome Segment: L4, L5

    Trigger Point Associations:
    Muscle: Dorsal interossei
    Myotome Innervation: Lateral plantar nerve, from tibial nerve (L5 - S2)
    Pain Referral Pattern: To second toe and sole of foot directly beneath point
    Indications: Diseases of the foot

    Notes:
    Main point for moving stagnation anywhere in the body and pacifying the Liver. Often reinforced with Hegu LI-4 to form the 4 gates.

    Ling Shu Ch. 6 suggests piercing the Ying and Shu points of the Yin channels if a disease is in the Yin of the Yin realm. (e.g. the Zang organs) suggesting this point and Xingjian Liv-2 in diseases of the Liver.

    Ling Shu Ch. 9, On Ends and Beginnings, advises that in the case of Heat associated with receding Yin Qi the Yang conduit should be pierced once and the Yin conduits twice. Based on other recommendation to use the He-Sea of the Yang conduits (Ch. 19) and the Yuan-Source with the Ying-Spring points (Chs. 6, 19 and 24) to clear Heat from the Zangfu, that would suggest this point, Yanglingquan GB-34 and Xingjian Liv-2 as a protocol to clear Heat in the Liver/Gall Bladder. Next it advises that in Cold associated with receding Yang Qi the Yang should be pierced twice and the Yin once but no such obvious protocol is evident for this situation.

    Ling Shu Ch. 19, on the Four Seasonal Qi, advises using the Shu-Stream points, unless the diseases are in the Fu organs, in which case the He-Sea points are chosen.

    Ling Shu Ch. 24, On Counterflow Diseases, employs the point combination mentioned in Ch. 6 for the treatment of Heart pain. It advises piercing this point and Xingjian Liv-2 when treating a Heart pain accompanied by ash-grey corpse-like complexion and inability to breathe deeply, associated with the Liver.

    Ling Shu Ch. 44, On the Qi Moving in Accordance with the Norms, indicates that the Shu-Stream points should be pierced in summer or when the disease becomes milder and then more severe again. The seasonal aspect should not be interpreted literally as it describes the time periods of weakness and severity as "controlled by summer". It also describes the morning, afternoon, evening and night cycle of the day to be like the four seasons of the year with afternoon corresponding to summer.

    Shang Han Lun, line 343, advises using moxa on Jueyin if a Jueyin pattern has lasted 6 or 7 days and is accompanied by faint pulse, reversal cold of the extremities, vexation and agitation. If it fails to restore the reversal the condition was considered fatal. Chang Qi-Zhi suggests this means using moxa on this point. Zhang Xi-Ju suggests Xingjian Liv-2 and Zhangmen Liv-13 (Mitchell, Ye and Wiseman, 1999, Shang Han Lun).

    In Tung acupuncture the Huo Zhu, Fire Ruler, point is located 0.5 cun proximal to this point. It is indicated for Liver patterns with Heat, much the same as the regular point. It is often combined with Huo Ling, Fire Hard, 0.5 cun proximal to Xingjian Liv-2 (Chu, 2015).

    Medieval phlebotomy point (John de Foxton, 1408: Liber Cosmographiae, maa.cam.ac.uk; Hans von Gersdorff, 1517: Feldtbüch der Wundartzney, www.nlm.nih.gov)

    In ayurvedic medicine:
    Kurcha marma point
    Size: 4 angula (cun)
    Structure: Tendon
    Effect of Injury: Disability (vaikalyakar marma)
    (Harish Johari, 1996, Ayurvedic Massage, Sanatan Society; Anupama Bhattacharya, Marma Shastra)

    Sieler (2015,Lethal Spots, Vital Secrets,p.121) describes this point as titavarmam "sturdy vital spot" in Siddha martial arts which if injured causes the foot to swell, a blood clot to form and pain, which can be severe enough to cause unconsciousness.

    In Tibetan medicine:
    Bleeding point (AMNH, Tibetan Medical Paintings)

    In Thai massage:
    Acupressure point (Salguero & Roylance, 2011, Encyclopedia of Thai Massage)


    Reference Notes: (click to display)